Sushi & Wagyu Glossary

Sushi and Wagyu Glossary
by Alex Evins (v.05/24)

Basics

Neta/Tane – Fish

Shari – Sushi rice, typically white rice with vinegar, sugar, and salt (More)

Nigiri – Piece of sushi (neta + shari)

Omakase – “I'll leave it to you,” the format of meals at high-end sushiya

Otsumami/Tsumami – Small appetizers or snacks

Sakana – Small drinking snacks

Taisho – Head sushi chef, usually also the proprietor

Itamae – “In front of the counter,” typically refers to an assistant sushi chef

Sushiya/Sushi-yasan – Sushi shop or restaurant

Styles (More)

Edomae – Traditional Tokyo-style sushi invented 200 years ago

Ezomae – Hokkaido-style sushi showcasing seafood of Hokkaido's waters

Kyshu-mae – Kyushu-style sushi that uses salt, kabosu, and shichimi in addition to soy sauce and tare; aka Kokura-mae

Sosakuzushi – Creative sushi not limited by edomae rules and traditions

Preparations

Aburi – Torched or seared

Chirashizushi Bowl of rice, typically sumeshi, topped with scattered neta

Bara-chirashi – Neta is cut into small pieces and mixed into the rice

Kaisendon – Bowl of rice, typically plain rice, topped with neta

Gunkan maki – Nigiri with nori wrapped around the rice

Jukusei-gyo – Aged neta

Kobujime – Curing of fish between layers of konbu

Kurakake – Nigiri in saddle form with the neta enveloping the shari

Maki – Sushi in rolled form

Nitsuke – Simmered and marinated

Oshizushi – Box pressed sushi (Types Battera – Oshizushi made with vinegared mackerel (saba)
Bozushi – Oshizushi in log or stick form, usually with the entire fish filet
Hakozushi – Oshizushi made with vinegared mackerel, kombu sea bream, grilled conger eel, boiled shrimp, or egg from Osaka
Iwakunizushi – Square oshizushi made with lotus root, mackerel, shrimp, and shredded egg (kinshita-tamago) from Iwakuni City
Kakuzushi/Hakozushi – Oshizushi made with mackerel and/or shiitake mushrooms, and egg from Hiroshima/Shimane
Masuzushi – Circular oshizushi of vinegared trout (sakura-masu) wrapped in bamboo leaves from Toyama
Omurazushi – Oshizushi of shredded egg (kinshita-tamago), sea bream, hanpen, and kanpyō from Shimabara in Nagasaki Prefecture
Aji No Oshizushi – Oshizushi of small salted horse mackerel from Kanagawa Prefecture
Sanmazushi – Oshizushi of grilled Pacific saury originally from Shimoda City in Shizuoka Prefecture
Kakinohazushi – Wrapped, not pressed, rectangular sushi of fish wrapped in persimmon leaves originally from Nara
)

Sujime – Pickling with salt and vinegar, softens tiny bones

Temaki – Hand roll

Temarizushi – Small ball-shaped nigiri

Yubiki/Kawasimozukuri – Blanching by splashing fish with boiling water

Zuke – Marinated

Ingredients

Akazu – Red vinegar, from sake kasu, often used to season the shari

Dashi – Cooking/soup base made from fish and seaweed

Kabosu – Green Japanese citrus, used in Kyushu-mae sushi

Komezu – Rice vinegar, used to season the shari

Konbu – Edible kelp, often used as a base seasoning

Nori – Dried seaweed, used for wrapping maki or gunkan

Oboro – Crumbled sweet shrimp paste made using shiba-ebi

Ponzu – Yuzu-based sauce served with sashimi

Shicimi Togarashi  – Seven spice mix incl. chilli, seaweed, and sesame

Shio – Salt

Shoyu – Soy sauce

Nikiri – Sweetened soy sauce used for sushi; made from shoyu (tamari or koikuchi), mirin, sake, and konbu/bonito

Sudachi – Small green Japanese citrus

Tare – Seasoned soy sauce used for topping or basting

Tsume/Nitsume – Eel sauce, a sweet soy-based sauce

Umibudo – Sea grapes, used in Kyushu-mae sushi

Wasabi – Horseradish-like rhizome grated into a paste for seasoning

Yuzu – Small yellow Japanese citrus

White Fish (Shiromi)

Lean White Fish

Fugu – Blowfish

Hirame – Fluke

Engawa – Fluke or flounder fin

Isaki – Grunt

Aka-isaki – Red Grunt

Karei – Flounder, aka Japanese flatfish

Abura-karei – Kamchatka flounder

Hoshi-karei – Starry flounder, prized

Madara – Pacific cod

Mako-karei – Marbled flounder

Matsukawa-karei – Barfin flounder

Mishima-okoze – Japanese stargazer

Same-karei – Shark flounder, aka roughscale sole

Kawahagi – Thread-sail filefish, often served with its liver

Kochi – Flathead

Mahata/Hata – Grouper, aka rock cod

Aka-hata – Red grouper, aka blacktip grouper

Ao-hata – Yellow grouper

Houki-hata – Comet grouper, found in Ise

Suzuki – Sea bass

Seigo – Young sea bass

Usubahagi – Unicorn leatherjacket

Medium–Full Bodied White Fish

Ainame – Fat greenling, very rare

Amadai – Tilefish

Aka-amadai – Red or horsehead tilefish

Shiro-amadai – White tilefish

Hakkaku – Dragon fish, aka sailfin poacher

Hamachi – Yellowtail, goes by different names depending on age/size (Wakashi  Inada  Warasa  Buri)

Buri – Adult yellowtail

Kanburi – Winter yellowtail, fattier; from Toyama Bay in Himi

Hiramasa – Yellowtail amberjack

Hobo – Spiny red gurnard, very rare

Ibodai – Japanese butterfish

Ishidai – Striped beakfish, aka barred knifejaw

Kanpachi – Greater amberjack, not baby yellowtail

Kisu – Japanese whiting

Kue/Ara – Longtooth grouper

Nodoguro – Adult rosy seabass, aka blackthroat seaperch

Aka-mutsu – Young nodoguro

Kuromutsu – Japanese bluefish

Shima-aji – Striped jack

Soi - Rockfish

Kinki – Thornyhead rockfish

Kurosoi – Black rockfish

Tai – Sea bream or snapper (Less Common Types Ebisudai/Yoroidai – Japanese soldierfish
Fuefukidai – Emperor bream
Hamadai/Onagadai – Ruby snapper, aka longtail red snapper
Hedai – Silver, goldline, or flat sea bream
Himedai – Lavender jobfish, aka crimson snapper
Ishigakidai – Rock porgy, aka spotted knife-jaw
Kintokidai – Red big eye snapper
Kobudai – Sheeps head snapper
Kodai – Young/small sea bream
Koshodai – Crescent sweetlips
Matodai – John Dory
Meichidai – Gingko fish
Renkodai – Yellowback sea bream
)

Aka-amadai – Red sea bream

Aodai – Blue sea bream, aka Japanese snapper

Itoyoridai – Golden threadfin bream

Kidai – Yellowback sea bream

Kinmedai – Golden eye snapper

Kurodai – Black snapper

Madai – Japanese red sea bream, aka Pacific barrelfish

Sakuradai – Cherry blossom sea bream

Takabe – Yellow-striped butterfish

Silver-Skinned Fish (Hikari Mono)

Aji – Horse mackerel

Iwashi – Sardine

Kaiwari – White fin trevally

Kamasu – Barracuda

Kasugo – Young crimson sea bream

Kibinago – Silver-stripe round herring

Kisu – Japanese whiting

Kohada – Gizzard shad; indicator of skill

Shinko – Baby kohada

Managatsuo – Butterfish, aka silver pomfret

Mehikari – Greeneye

Nishin – Pacific herring

Saba – Mackerel

Goma-saba – Blue mackerel

Nama-saba – Raw mackerel

Shime-saba – Cured mackerel

Sanma – Pacific saury, aka pike mackerel

Sawara – Spanish mackerel

Sagoshi – Young Spanish mackerel

Sayori – Needlefish, aka Japanese halfbeak

Kannuki – Large needlefish

Tachiuo – Beltfish

Long Fish (Nagamono)

Anago Salt-water conger eel

Noresore – Baby conger eel

Hamo – Conger pike eel

Unagi – Freshwater eel, not used in sushi

Yagara – cornetfish

Aka-yagara – Red cornetfish

Inkfish

Ika – Squid

Aori-ika – Bigfin reef squid

Hotaru-ika – Firefly squid

Sumi-Ika – Cuttlefish, most common

Kaminari-Ika/Mongo-Ika– Kisslip cuttlefish

Shin-Ika – Baby cuttlefish

Yari-ika – Spear Squid

Tako – Octopus

Mizudako – Giant Pacific Octopus

Namadako – Raw Octopus

Yudedako – Boiled Octopus

Takowasa – Sakana made of boiled sliced octopus with wasabi

Red-Fleshed Fish (Akami)

Katsuo – Bonito, aka skipjack tuna

Suma – Black skipjack

Maguro – Tuna

Binnaga-maguro/Bincho-maguro/Shiro-maguro – Albacore tuna

Koshinaga-maguro – Longtail tuna

Kihada-maguro – Yellowfin tuna (aka Ahi tuna)

Mebachi/Bachi-maguro – Big-eye tuna (aka Ahi tuna)

Minami-maguro – Southern bluefin tuna

Kuro-maguro/Hon-maguro – Pacific (taiheiyou) or Atlantic (taisaiyou) bluefin tuna

ChiaiDark red bloody meat, rarely used in sushi

Chiai-gishi – Band of meat between chiai and chutoro—distinct color gradient

Akami – Lean meat from the upper- (sekami) or, preferably, mid-back (senaka)

Akami zuke – Marinated akami

Toro – Fatty meat

Chutoro Medium-fatty cut from the mid-belly (haranaka) or back (sekami/senaka)

Otoro – Fatty cut, typically from the upper belly (harakami)

Kamatoro – Very fatty marbled cut from the back cheek

Dandara – Describes meat interspersed with visible white bands of sinew

Shimofuri – Describes marbled meat with little to no sinew

Sunazuri – Describes marbled meat with thin sinew

Hagashi Toro  Describes meat found in between the sinew—i.e. dandara with the tendons peeled off; very rare and labor intensive; cut from the top of the tail or underbelly

Jabara Toro – “Bellows/snake’s belly,” very fatty dandara cut from the underbelly

Kawagishi Toro – Describes meat that is scraped from the bone or skin

Negitoro – Finely chopped fatty tuna commonly mixed with scallions

Setoro – Meat from the back area closest to the dorsal fin, a type of wakaremi

Noten/Hachinomi – Meat from the top of the head

Tossaki – Meat from the base of the head

Hohoniku Cheek meat from below the eye, often grilled

Nakaochi – Tuna rib

Nakaochi Scrape – Tuna rib/back meat scraped off from the bones

Tenpa/Tenmi – Lean meat from near the spine

Wakaremi – Meat found at the root of the dorsal fin, very rare

Onomi – Meat from the tail/dorsal fin

Hireshita – Scraped meat from right above the first pectoral fin

Suji – Tuna tendon, can be grilled and eaten

Meji – Baby bluefin tuna, < 1 year old

Chubo – Young bluefin tuna, 2–5 years old

Shellfish (Kairui)

Akagai – Ark–shell clam, aka red clam

Himo – Mantle around the meat of the clam

Aoyagi – Red clam or orange clam

Awabi – Abalone; often served with its own liver sauce

Hamaguri – Hard clam

Hashira – Shellfish adductor muscle

Hokkigai – Surf clam

Hotate – Scallop

Ishigakigai – Aleutian cockle

Kaibashira/Kobashira – Adductor muscle, sometimes referred to as baby scallops

Kaki – Oyster

Mategai – Razor clam

Mirugai – Giant clam or geoduck

Sazae – Horned turban shell

Tairagai – Pen shell, similar in consistency to scallops

Torigai – Japanese cockle

Tsubugai – Whelk

Crustaceans (Kokakurui)

Ebi – Shrimp

Aka-ebi – Argentine red shrimp

Ama-ebi – Sweet shrimp

Ao-ebi – Blue shrimp from New Caledonia; not sold in Japan

Botan-ebi/Toyama-ebi – Spot prawn

Budo-ebi/Higoromo-ebi – Grape shrimp from Hokkaido and Sanriku

Gasu-ebi – Rustling sweet shrimp found mainly in Kanazawa

Ise-ebi/Oni-ebi/Ibaramo-ebi – Spiny lobster

Kuma-ebi – Green tiger prawn

Kuruma-ebi – Japanese tiger prawn

Odori-ebi – “Dancing shrimp,” preparation where shrimp are served live

Sakura-ebi – Tiny pink shrimp

Shako/Gasa-ebi – Mantis shrimp

Shiba-ebi/Himeama-ebi – Small grey prawn

Shima-ebi – Hokkai shrimp, aka Morotoge or striped shrimp

Shiro-ebi – Small white shrimp

Ushi-ebi – Giant/black tiger prawn

Kani – Crab  (Other Crab Species Snow Crab (Opilio/Bairdi - Worldwide)
King Crab (Red/Blue/Golden - Bering Sea)
Southern King Crab/Centolla Chilena/Centolla Fueguina (Chile/Argentina)
Dungeness Crab (U.S. West Coast)
California/Spiny King Crab (U.S. West Coast)
Txangurro Spider Crab (Spain)
Tasmanian Giant Crab (Australia)
Venetian Spider Crab (Italy)
Trollkrabbe (Nordic Countries)
Crystal Crab (Australia)
Jonah Crab (U.S. East Coast)
Brown Box Crab (U.S. West Coast)
Red/Pacific Rock Crab (U.S. West Coast)
Brown Crab (U.K./Western Europe)
Flower Crab (Australia)
Mud Crab (Africa/Australasia/Asia)
Devon Crab (U.K.)
Dorset/Portland Crab (U.K.)
Chesapeake Blue Crab (U.S. East Coast)
Peekytoe Crab (U.S. East Coast)
Florida Stone Crab (U.S. East Coast/Caribbean)
Chinese Mitten Crab/Shanghai Hairy Crab (China)
Providencia Black Crab (Colombia)
Coconut Crab (Fiji)
Horseshoe Crab (Worldwide)
)

Abura-gani – Blue king crab

Hanasaki-gani – Hanasaki crab, a red spikey king crab from Nemuro

Kani-miso – Crab brain and innards

Ke-gani – Hokkaido hairy crab, aka horsehair crab

Mokuzu-gani – Japanese mitten crab

Sawa-gani – Japanese freshwater crab

Taraba-gani – Red king crab

Takaashi-gani – Japanese spider crab

Watari-gani/Gazami – Japanese blue/swimming crab

Zuwai-gani  – Snow crab, has verious names based on the region of origin

Benizuwai-gani – Red snow crab

Kogane-gani – Golden snow crab from Fukui

Matsuba-gani/Kano-gani – Male snow crab, “pine-leaf crab”

Seko-gani/Koppe-gani – Femal snow crab

Kobako-gani – Prized “flavor box” female snow crab from Kanazawa

Taiza-gani – Very rare snow crabs from Taiza port in Kyoto

Roe (Gyoran)

Ikura – Salmon roe

Sujiko – Ikura in it’s sac

Karasumi – Dried and cured mullet roe, softer version of bottarga

Borako – Fresh mullet roe

Kazunoko – Herring roe, often dried and pressed into blocks

Kimo – Liver, often served as a otsumami or as a topping/sauce

Ankimo – Monkfish liver

Shirako – Cod sperm sacs

Shiokara – Sakana made of fermented squid entrails

Sotoko – Crab roe

Tarako – Salted sacks of cod roe, not typically used in sushi

Mentaiko/Karashi Mentaiko – Tarako from Alaska pollack seasoned with chili

Uni – Sea urchin gonads (Species Japanese:
Aka uni (赤うに) – Pseudocentrotus depressus
Bafun uni (バフに) – Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus
    Ezo-bafun uni (エゾバフに) –
    Strongylocentrotus intermedius
Murasaki uni (ムラサキウニ) – Heliocidaris crassispina
    Kita-Murasaki uni (キタムラサキウニ) –
    Strongylocentrotus nudus
Shirahige uni (シラヒゲウニ) – Tripneustes gratilla

Non-Japanese:
California purple uni – Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
California red uni – Mesocentrotus franciscanus
Maine uni – Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis
Caribbean uni – Tripneustes ventricosus
Chilean uni – Loxechinus albus
European uni – Echinus esculentus / Paracentrotus lividus
)

Aka uni – Pink/red sea urchin, short spines, found off of Kyushu

Bafun uni – Green sea urchin, short spines, darker colored flesh, found in deep waters off Honshu

Ezo-bafun uni – Prized bafun uni from Hokkaido

Murasaki uni – Purple sea urchin, longer spines, larger lighter colored flesh, found in the waters off Honshu

Kita-Murasaki uni – Prized murasakai uni from Hokkaido

Shirahige uni – White collector uni, found in the waters around Okinawa

Non-Japanese

California – American purple (American murasaki) and American giant purple/red (American omurasaki)

Maine – Northern green (Northern bafun)

Caribbean – American white (American shiro)

Chilean – Chilean red (Chiri-uni)

European – European purple (European murasaki)

Note that the colors above typically refer to their exterior and that uni is also broadly categorized based on the color of its flesh as either Shiro (“white”) uni (lighter yellow type from purple/Murasaki species) or Aka (“red”) uni (darker yellow type from green/Bafun species; higher quality).

Other

Gari – Sliced pickled ginger, served as a palate cleanser between nigiri

Tamago – Sweet egg omelette served at the end of a meal; indicator of skill

Other Common Fish Not Typically Used in Sushi

Ayu – Sweetfish

Gindara – Black cod, aka sablefish

Kujira – Whale

Masu – Trout

Niji-masu – Rainbow trout

Sakura-masu – Cherry blossom trout

Amago – Red spotted trout

Satsuki-masu – Rain salmon;seagoing variety of amago

Biwa-masu – Sakura-masu from Lake Biwa

Umi-masu – Ocean trout

Oome-masu See Tokishirazu (Sanriku)

Sake – Salmon

Masunosuke – King salmon

Shiozake – Chum (dog) salmon

Tokishirazu/Tokizake – Rare young shiozake caught in the spring/summer

Keiji – Rare young shiozake caught in the fall

Benizake – Red (sockeye) salmon

Ginzake – Silver (coho) salmon

Karafutomasu – Pink (humpback) salmon

Shirauo – Japanese icefish, aka whitebait

Shishamo – Willow leaf fish, a type of smelt

Tobiuo – Flying fish

Tobiko – Flying fish roe, artifically colored

Other Akasita – Red tonguefish
Ira – Scarbreast tuskfish
Ishimochi – White croaker
Mejina – Blackeye seabream
Mebaru – Japanese rockfish, aka sea perch
    Aka-mebaru – Red rockfish
    Kuro-mebaru – Black rockfish
    Shiro-mebaru – White rockfish
    Ukeguchi-mebaru – Sullen rockfish
    Usu-mebaru – Goldeye rockfish
Meitakarei – Finespotted flounder

Wagyu Glossary

Wagyu is Japanese (wa-) beef (-gyu) from any of the below four Japanese breeds of beef cattle:

Japanese Black (Kuroge Washu) [> 90% of wagyu, breed known for its marbling]

Tajima Ushi – Bloodline of Kuroge Washu mainly from Hyogo Prefecture

Kobe-gyu Famed and prized Kobe beef from Hyogo, must have the iconic Nojigiku stamp

Hida-gyu – Prized beef raised in the Fukano Valley of Gifu Prefecture

Matsusaka-gyu – Famed beef of heifers (females that have not borne calves) from Mie Prefecture

Ōmi-gyu – Famed beef from Shiga Prefecture east of Kyoto, older strain than Kobe-gyu

Sanda-gyu – Very rare, from Sanda City in Hyogo

Other Popular Ushi

Miyazaki-gyu – Highly prized beef from Kyushu, second largest Japanese Black producer

Ozaki Beef – Prized wagyu from Muneharu Ozaki’s farm in Miyazaki; supplier of WAGYUMAFIA

Hitachi-gyu – Hand-raised cattle from Ibaraki Prefecture

Iga-gyu – Very rare, heifers from Mie Prefecture

Iwami-gyu – Famed and rare, heifers from Ōnan in Shimane Prefecture

Kagoshima-gyu – Prized beef from Kyushu, south of Miyazaki, largest Japanese Black producer

Kazusa-gyu – Raised on iodine-rich water in Chiba Prefecture

Maesawa-gyu – From Iwate Prefecture, raised on straw from the same ward of Oshu city

Noto-gyu – Very rare marbled meat from Ishikawa Prefecture

Sanuki-gyu – Olive wagyu, prized newer strain raised on olives from Shodoshima Island in Kagawa Prefecture

Shinshu-gyu – Very rare, raised on Apples, from Nagano Prefecture

Shiro-gyu – Prized and rare, from Hokkaido

Saga-gyu – Crossbreed between Japanese Black and Holstein dairy cows from Saga Prefecture

Yonezawa-gyu – Famed beef of heifers from Yamagata Prefecture

Other Breeds and Brands

Other Breeds and Brands

Japanese Red/Brown (Akage Washu/Kassyoku Washu)

Aka-gyu –  Leaner meat mainly from Kumamaoto and Kochi

Japanese Shorthorn (Tankaku Ushu) [< 1% of all wagyu]

Iwate Tankaku-gyu – Leaner meat from Iwate

Japanese Polled (Mukaku Washu) [Virtually nonexistant due to conservation efforts]

Note that “washu” means “Japanese breed” and should not be confused with the American product Washugyu, which is a crossbreed between Tajima-ushi and American Black Angus, similar to other types of so-called “American Wagyu.” For comparison, USDA Prime has a BMS score of 3–5. For more, see Wagyu Myths Debunked.

Wagyu Grading

Yield Grade – Letter grade (A to C, A being the best) indicating amount of meat yielded from the cow; not a quality grade

Meat Quality Score – Number score (1 to 5, 5 being the best) based on the lowest of the following scores:

BMS – Beef Marbling Standard, score for fat (Grade 5 = BMS 8–12)

BCS – Beef Color Standard, score for meat color (Grade 5 = BCS 3–5)

BFS – Beef Fat Standard, score for fat color (Grade 5 = BFS 1–4)

Texture/Firmness – Visually appraised score for texture (Grade 5 = Very Fine Texture and Very Good Firmness)

Thus, top grade wagyu is labeled A5

Red-Fleshed Fish (Akami)

Katsuo – Bonito, aka skipjack tuna

Suma – Black skipjack

Maguro – Tuna

Binnaga-maguro/Bincho-maguro/Shiro-maguro – Albacore tuna

Koshinaga-maguro – Longtail tuna

Kihada-maguro – Yellowfin tuna (aka Ahi tuna)

Mebachi/Bachi-maguro – Big-eye tuna (aka Ahi tuna)

Minami-maguro – Southern bluefin tuna

Kuro-maguro/Hon-maguro – Pacific (taiheiyou) or Atlantic (taisaiyou) bluefin tuna

ChiaiDark red bloody meat, rarely used in sushi

Chiai-gishi – Band of meat between chiai and chutoro—distinct color gradient

Akami – Lean meat from the upper- (sekami) or, preferably, mid-back (senaka)

Akami zuke – Marinated akami

Toro – Fatty meat

Chutoro Medium-fatty cut from the mid-belly (haranaka) or back (sekami/senaka)

Otoro – Fatty cut, typically from the upper belly (harakami)

Kamatoro – Very fatty marbled cut from the back cheek

Dandara – Describes meat interspersed with visible white bands of sinew

Shimofuri – Describes marbled meat with little to no sinew

Sunazuri – Describes marbled meat with thin sinew

Hagashi Toro  Describes meat found in between the sinew—i.e. dandara with the tendons peeled off; very rare and labor intensive; cut from the top of the tail or underbelly

Jabara Toro – “Bellows/snake’s belly,” very fatty dandara cut from the underbelly

Kawagishi Toro – Describes meat that is scraped from the bone or skin

Negitoro – Finely chopped fatty tuna commonly mixed with scallions

Setoro – Meat from the back area closest to the dorsal fin, a type of wakaremi

Noten/Hachinomi – Meat from the top of the head

Tossaki – Meat from the base of the head

Hohoniku Cheek meat from below the eye, often grilled

Nakaochi – Tuna rib

Nakaochi Scrape – Tuna rib/back meat scraped off from the bones

Tenpa/Tenmi – Lean meat from near the spine

Wakaremi – Meat found at the root of the dorsal fin, very rare

Onomi – Meat from the tail/dorsal fin

Hireshita – Scraped meat from right above the first pectoral fin

Suji – Tuna tendon, can be grilled and eaten

Meji – Baby bluefin tuna, < 1 year old

Chubo – Young bluefin tuna, 2–5 years old

Makajiki – Striped marlin

Shellfish (Kairui)

Akagai – Ark–shell clam, aka red clam

Himo – Mantle around the meat of the clam

Aoyagi – Red clam or orange clam

Awabi – Abalone; often served with its own liver sauce

Hamaguri – Hard clam

Hashira – Shellfish adductor muscle

Hokkigai – Surf clam

Hotate – Scallop

Kaibashira/Kobashira – Adductor muscle, sometimes referred to as baby scallops

Kaki – Oyster

Ishigakigai – Aleutian cockle

Mategai – Razor clam

Mirugai – Giant clam or geoduck

Sazae – Horned turban shell

Tairagai – Pen shell, similar in consistency to scallops

Torigai – Japanese cockle

Tsubugai – Whelk

Crustaceans (Kokakurui)

Ebi – Shrimp

Aka-ebi – Argentine red shrimp

Ama-ebi – Sweet shrimp

Ao-ebi – Blue shrimp from New Caledonia; not found in Japan

Botan-ebi/Toyama-ebi – Spot prawn

Budo-ebi/Higoromo-ebi – Grape shrimp from Hokkaido and Sanriku

Gasu-ebi – Rustling sweet shrimp found mainly in Kanazawa

Ise-ebi/Oni-ebi/Ibaramo-ebi – Spiny lobster

Kuma-ebi – Green tiger prawn

Kuruma-ebi – Japanese tiger prawn

Odori-ebi – “Dancing shrimp,” preparation where shrimp are served live

Sakura-ebi – Tiny pink shrimp

Shako/Gasa-ebi – Mantis shrimp

Shiba-ebi/Himeama-ebi – Small grey prawn

Shima-ebi – Hokkai shrimp, aka Morotoge or striped shrimp

Shiro-ebi – Small white shrimp

Ushi-ebi – Giant/black tiger prawn

Kani – Crab  (Other Crab Species Snow Crab (Opilio/Bairdi - Worldwide)
King Crab (Red/Blue/Golden - Bering Sea)
Southern King Crab/Centolla Chilena/Centolla Fueguina (Chile/Argentina)
Dungeness Crab (U.S. West Coast)
California/Spiny King Crab (U.S. West Coast)
Txangurro Spider Crab (Spain)
Tasmanian Giant Crab (Australia)
Venetian Spider Crab (Italy)
Trollkrabbe (Nordic Countries)
Crystal Crab (Australia)
Jonah Crab (U.S. East Coast)
Brown Box Crab (U.S. West Coast)
Red/Pacific Rock Crab (U.S. West Coast)
Flower Crab (Southeast Asia/Oceania)
Brown Crab (U.K./Western Europe)
Mud Crab (Africa/Australasia/Asia)
Devon Crab (U.K.)
Dorset/Portland Crab (U.K.)
Chesapeake Blue Crab (U.S. East Coast)
Peekytoe Crab (U.S. East Coast)
Florida Stone Crab (U.S. East Coast/Caribbean)
Chinese Mitten Crab/Shanghai Hairy Crab (China)
Providencia Black Crab (Colombia)
Coconut Crab (Fiji)
Horseshoe Crab (Worldwide)
)

Abura-gani – Blue king crab

Hanasaki-gani – Hanasaki crab, a red spikey king crab from Nemuro

Kani-miso – Crab brain and innards

Ke-gani – Hokkaido hairy crab, aka horsehair crab

Mokuzu-gani – Japanese mitten crab

Sawa-gani – Japanese freshwater crab

Taraba-gani – Red king crab

Takaashi-gani – Japanese spider crab

Watari-gani/Gazami – Japanese blue/swimming crab

Zuwai-gani  – Snow crab, has verious names based on the region of origin

Benizuwai-gani – Red snow crab

Kogane-gani – Golden snow crab from Fukui

Matsuba-gani/Kano-gani – Male snow crab, “pine-leaf crab”

Seko-gani/Koppe-gani – Femal snow crab

Kobako-gani – Prized “flavor box” female snow crab from Kanazawa

Taiza-gani – Very rare snow crabs from Taiza port in Kyoto

Roe (Gyoran)

Ikura – Salmon roe

Sujiko – Ikura in it’s sac

Karasumi – Dried and cured mullet roe, softer version of bottarga

Borako – Fresh mullet roe

Kazunoko – Herring roe, often dried and pressed into blocks

Kimo – Liver, often served as a otsumami or as a topping/sauce

Ankimo – Monkfish liver

Shirako – Cod sperm sacs

Shiokara – Sakana made of fermented squid entrails

Sotoko – Crab roe

Tarako – Salted sacks of cod roe, not typically used in sushi

Mentaiko/Karashi Mentaiko – Tarako from Alaska pollack seasoned with chili

Uni – Sea urchin gonads (Species Japanese:
Aka uni (赤うに) – Pseudocentrotus depressus
Bafun uni (バフに) – Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus
    Ezo-bafun uni (エゾバフに) – Strongylocentrotus intermedius
Murasaki uni (ムラサキウニ) – Heliocidaris crassispina
    Kita-Murasaki uni (キタムラサキウニ) – Strongylocentrotus nudus
Shirahige uni (シラヒゲウニ) – Tripneustes gratilla

Non-Japanese:
California purple uni – Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
California red uni – Mesocentrotus franciscanus
Maine uni – Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis
Caribbean uni – Tripneustes ventricosus
Chilean uni – Loxechinus albus
European uni – Echinus esculentus / Paracentrotus lividus
)

Aka uni – Pink/red sea urchin, short spines, found off of Kyushu

Bafun uni – Green sea urchin, short spines, darker colored flesh, found in deep waters off Honshu

Ezo-bafun uni – Prized bafun uni from Hokkaido

Murasaki uni – Purple sea urchin, longer spines, larger lighter colored flesh, found in the waters off Honshu

Kita-Murasaki uni – Prized murasakai uni from Hokkaido

Shirahige uni – White collector uni, found in the waters around Okinawa

Non-Japanese

California – American purple (American murasaki) and
American giant purple/red (American omurasaki)

Maine – Northern green (Northern bafun)

Caribbean – American white (American shiro)

Chilean – Chilean red (Chiri-uni)

European – European purple (European murasaki)

Note that the colors above typically refer to their exterior and that uni is also broadly categorized based on the color of its flesh as either Shiro (“white”) uni (lighter yellow type from purple/Murasaki species) or Aka (“red”) uni (darker yellow type from green/Bafun species; higher quality).

Other

Gari – Sliced pickled ginger, served as a palate cleanser between nigiri

Tamago – Sweet egg omelette served at the end of a meal; indicator of skill

Other Common Fish Not Typically Used in Sushi

Ayu – Sweetfish

Gindara – Black cod, aka sablefish

Kujira – Whale

Masu – Trout

Niji-masu – Rainbow trout

Sakura-masu – Cherry blossom trout

Amago – Red spotted trout

Satsuki-masu – Rain salmon;seagoing variety of amago

Biwa-masu – Sakura-masu from Lake Biwa

Umi-masu – Ocean trout

Oome-masu See Tokishirazu (Sanriku)

Sake – Salmon

Masunosuke – King salmon

Shiozake – Chum (dog) salmon

Tokishirazu/Tokizake – Rare young shiozake caught in the spring/summer

Keiji – Rare young shiozake caught in the fall

Benizake – Red (sockeye) salmon

Ginzake – Silver (coho) salmon

Karafutomasu – Pink (humpback) salmon

Shirauo – Japanese icefish, aka whitebait

Shishamo – Willow leaf fish, a type of smelt

Tobiuo – Flying fish

Tobiko – Flying fish roe, artifically colored

Other Akasita – Red tonguefish
Ira – Scarbreast tuskfish
Ishimochi – White croaker
Mejina – Blackeye seabream
Mebaru – Japanese rockfish, aka sea perch
    Aka-mebaru – Red rockfish
    Kuro-mebaru – Black rockfish
    Shiro-mebaru – White rockfish
    Ukeguchi-mebaru – Sullen rockfish
    Usu-mebaru – Goldeye rockfish
Meitakarei – Finespotted flounder